Our lab investigates protein folding mechanisms using single molecule manipulation techniques.  Within last ten years or so, single molecule techniques have developed into powerful tools for many branches for physical and biological sciences.  Since biological macromolecules are remarkably complex and variable, single molecule studies have generated significant new insights into the mechanisms of their functionality in cells and organelles.  These methods have significant advantages over more static methods since they are designed to make observations on molecules as they move in time and space.